Guide to understand how the air conditioner works and how to repair

Air is one of the elements that human beings have been able to master, to such a degree that they can manipulate its intensity through air conditioners , these instruments were created with the aim of maintaining a comfortable temperature, which is why they are becoming more and more popular. in homes, shops and offices.

Air conditioners are in constant innovation , it is even estimated that by the year 2050 the demand for this equipment will triple, so there will be a great job field for professionals who dedicate themselves to installing and maintaining them.

If you are interested in knowing how they work or have the concern to repair one of these equipment, you are in the right place! In this article you will learn aspects related to its mechanism. Accompany me!

Know the parts of an air conditioner

The operation of this appliance allows the air to be heated or cooled, according to the needs of the people to enjoy the space where they are.

The most common equipment consists of two modules , one is known as a condenser , its function is to generate heat, while the other is called an evaporator and on the contrary it is responsible for extracting heat, let’s get to know them!

1. Condensing unit

It compresses and condenses the refrigerant gas that comes from the evaporator unit, it is made up of the following elements:

  • Coil: 

It is a series of tubes through which the refrigerant gas circulates, in addition to being controlled and retained.

  • Fan

Its main function is to circulate the air in the condenser to prevent heat build-up.

  • Expansion valve

Regulates the refrigerant gas that passes in liquid form to the evaporator, through thermostatic elements located in the upper part, according to the heating level of the refrigerant.

  • Compressor

This machine is designed to compress refrigerant gas from air conditioners.

  • Service valves for compressor suction and discharge

They assist the gas charging process and the measurements of the refrigerant gas pressure, the service valves are screwed to the compressor body in a suction and another in the discharge.

2. Evaporator unit

It converts the refrigerant gas from a liquid to a gas, this evaporation takes place when there is a heat and energy exchange, so the heat is always transferred from the material with a higher temperature to a lower one.

The parts that make it up are:

  • Serpentine

Pipe network, through which the refrigerant gas that comes from the condenser travels.

  • Fan

Most evaporators use propeller-type fans to move air through the coil and circulate cold throughout the unit.

Now that you know the main parts that make up an air conditioner, you should understand how it works, let’s see it!

Operation of air conditioners

The process carried out by all air conditioners is made up of the following five main stages:

1. Compression

During this time, the refrigerant gas is drawn in at low pressure by the compressor and processed with low temperature, later it is transformed and comes out compressed at high pressure and temperature, thanks to the electric motor providing the necessary energy.

2. Condensation

The refrigerant in the gaseous state enters the condenser at high pressure and high temperature, once inside, it begins the exchange of heat towards the air that circulates through the coil, thus producing its condensation.

At the end of the process, the gas comes out in a liquid state at high pressure and medium temperature.

3. Expansion

Due to the expansion to which the refrigerant is subjected, it enters the valve, where there is a sudden drop in pressure and temperature, after which the refrigerant is expelled in a state between liquid and gaseous.

4. Evaporation

When the refrigerant gas enters the evaporator, it initiates a heat exchange with the air in the room. During this process it absorbs heat through the air in the room, and at the same time removes any moisture present.

5. Control

When leaving the evaporator, the refrigerant gas passes in a gaseous state to the compressor, the expansion valve controls its output and regulates the evaporation temperature, once it has completely evaporated, it passes through the compressor again and the conditioning cycle begins from new.

Now that you know the parts and operation of air conditioners, let’s see the procedure you must follow to fix this mechanism.

How to repair an air conditioner

When carrying out a review or repair it is necessary to have all the safety equipment and the appropriate tools , in this way you will protect yourself against any accident and you can guarantee an optimal work. To make a diagnosis, perform the following steps:

Take the initial data

Locate the air conditioning data plate and check the type of refrigerant gas, its quality, voltage, current consumption and cooling capacity, so you will know if it is the right one and covers the air conditioning needs of the place where it is located.

Perform the test run

Turn on the air conditioning and check that the display does not show any code or error.

Here is a list of the most common failures and their quick solutions:

1. Warnings on the control board, fan, temperature detector or refrigerant leak 

If you want to deal with this problem, reset the equipment, disconnect it from the light, wait a minute, then reconnect and turn on.

2. Bad communication between units

Check that the connection of the cables that connects the two units is correct and in good condition.

3. Power surge or overvoltage 

In this situation, check the equipment’s power fuses and reset the unit, turning it off and disconnecting it from the light.

4. Warning on connectivity module

Check that the wifi module of the equipment is connected correctly, if the code continues, reset the unit.

Manual review

If the equipment does not mark any code on the display , then check it manually, for which, it is advisable to follow the following steps:

    • Check the voltage of the contact.
    • Check the consumption of electrical current.
    • Measure team pressure.
    • After performing this analysis you may find some of the following problems for which we give you solutions:1. Problem related to electrical installation

      Indicates the customer to repair faults in their electrical installation so that the equipment works correctly.

      2. Pressure problem

      Perform an inspection of the pipes and external connections.

      3. No visible problem

      In this case, you should open the equipment and visually check to determine where the fault is.

Visual review

It is carried out when you cannot detect the root of the problem, so you must visually review the equipment in order to detect the problem, for this, carefully and carefully look at the following parts:  

1. Filters

Remove the filters from the equipment and check that they are not covered, if so, remove all the dirt with water and neutral soap, dry and replace them. 

2. Electronic card

Verify that the card is not burned or black, that it does not have excess dust, that the solder is in bad condition or that any of its components are broken. If it is damaged, you must change it.

3. Compressor

Check that it is not burned and that its temperature is hot without reaching excess, it should not have bumps or stains, since these are signs of a leak, also check that the terminals where the power is received are connected and in good condition. 

4. Capacitor

Make sure that it is not burned and is located where it belongs, also, inspect that the connection terminals are in optimal condition.

5. Fan

Check that the motor is not burned or flamed, that the connections are in excellent condition, and that the blades are not bent, broken or blocked.

6. Valves

Observe that they are not damaged by a blow or that they have a leak, for this you can use soap foam, if bubbles form it means that there is a leak, in some cases you can hear the gas escaping or there is runoff. 

7. Copper pipes

Check that it is continuous, that is, that it does not have bumps, dents or deformities, that it is crushed or prevents the passage of refrigerant gas. Focus on looking for any leaks, in some cases they are evident and you can hear how the gas escapes or there is liquid runoff.

We hope this guide will help you get started with your first air conditioner repairs . With the passage of time and practice you will master its components and it will be easier for you to determine any type of failure.

Would you like to delve into this topic? We invite you to enroll in our Air Conditioning Repair Diploma where you will learn to master its operation and improve air conditioning options in all spaces, and you will also be able to achieve the financial independence that you so deserve. You can! Reach your goals!

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